What is ADITYA-L1

ADITYA-L1 is an Indian space mission aimed at studying the Sun. It is developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Here are some key details about the ADITYA-L1 mission:

  1. Objective: The primary objective of the ADITYA-L1 mission is to study the Sun’s outermost layer, known as the corona. The corona is the source of solar winds and has temperatures that are much higher than the Sun’s surface. Understanding the corona is crucial for predicting space weather events, which can impact satellite operations, communication systems, and even power grids on Earth.
  2. L1 Position: The satellite is positioned at the L1 (Lagrangian Point 1) of the Sun-Earth system. This point offers a continuous view of the Sun without any interruptions, making it an ideal location for solar observations.
  3. Instruments: ADITYA-L1 carries a suite of instruments designed to study various aspects of the Sun. The primary instrument is the Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC), which will study the diagnostic parameters of the solar corona and dynamics and origin of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).
  4. Significance: The mission will provide valuable data to understand some of the unresolved questions about the Sun, such as the heating mechanism of the solar corona and the factors that lead to CMEs. This knowledge can help in predicting and mitigating the effects of space weather events.
  5. Launch: The mission was initially conceived as a small satellite carrying only the VELC but was later expanded to include additional instruments to provide comprehensive observations of the Sun.
  6. Collaboration: While ISRO is the primary agency responsible for the mission, several other research institutions in India are involved in the development of the instruments and the scientific objectives of the mission.

In summary, ADITYA-L1 is a significant step for India in the field of solar astronomy and will contribute to the global understanding of our Sun and its impact on space weather.


The “why” behind the ADITYA-L1 mission pertains to the scientific and strategic reasons that drove the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to embark on this solar exploration. Here are the primary reasons for the ADITYA-L1 mission:

  1. Understanding the Solar Corona: One of the most significant mysteries in solar physics is the high temperature of the Sun’s corona. While the Sun’s surface (photosphere) is about 6,000 Kelvin, the outer layer (corona) has temperatures rising to a few million Kelvin. The exact mechanism behind this temperature anomaly remains a puzzle. ADITYA-L1 aims to provide insights into this phenomenon.
  2. Predicting Space Weather: Solar activities, such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares, can have profound effects on space weather. These events can disrupt satellite operations, communication systems, navigation, and even power grids on Earth. By studying the dynamics and origins of CMEs, ADITYA-L1 can contribute to better space weather prediction.
  3. Enhancing Technological Capabilities: Embarking on such missions helps in advancing the technological capabilities of a nation. Developing, launching, and operating a satellite like ADITYA-L1 provides ISRO with valuable experience that can be applied to future space missions.
  4. Scientific Leadership: With ADITYA-L1, India joins a select group of countries that have undertaken missions to study the Sun. This reinforces India’s position in the global scientific community and showcases its capabilities in space research.
  5. Supporting Academic and Research Institutions: The mission involves collaboration with various academic and research institutions in India. This provides opportunities for scientists, researchers, and students to be part of cutting-edge space research.
  6. Global Collaboration: Data from ADITYA-L1 can be shared with the global scientific community, fostering collaboration and contributing to the collective understanding of solar phenomena.

In essence, the ADITYA-L1 mission is not just about studying the Sun but also about advancing technological know-how, fostering scientific collaboration, and preparing for the challenges posed by space weather events.

PSLV-C57/Aditya-L1 Mission

September 19, 2023

The spacecraft is currently travelling to the Sun-Earth L1 point.

September 18, 2023

Aditya-L1 has commenced the collection of scientific data.

September 15, 2023

Fourth Earth-bound maneuvre (EBN#4) is performed successfully. The new orbit attained is 256 km x 121973 km.

September 10, 2023

Third Earth-bound maneuvre (EBN#3) is performed successfully. The new orbit attained is 296 km x 71767 km.

September 05, 2023

Second Earth-bound maneuvre (EBN#2) is performed successfully. The new orbit attained is 282 km x 40225 km.

September 03, 2023

The next maneuvre (EBN#2) is scheduled for September 5, 2023, around 03:00 Hrs. IST
The first Earth-bound maneuvre (EBN#1) is performed successfully from ISTRAC, Bengaluru. The new orbit attained is 245 km x 22459 km
The satellite is healthy and operating nominally

September 02, 2023

India’s first solar observatory has begun its journey to the destination of Sun-Earth L1 point
The vehicle has placed the satellite precisely into its intended orbit
The launch of Aditya-L1 by PSLV-C57 is accomplished successfully

Aditya L1 shall be the first space based Indian mission to study the Sun. The spacecraft shall be placed in a halo orbit around the Lagrange point 1 (L1) of the Sun-Earth system, which is about 1.5 million km from the Earth. A satellite placed in the halo orbit around the L1 point has the major advantage of continuously viewing the Sun without any occultation/eclipses. This will provide a greater advantage of observing the solar activities and its effect on space weather in real time. The spacecraft carries seven payloads to observe the photosphere, chromosphere and the outermost layers of the Sun (the corona) using electromagnetic and particle and magnetic field detectors. Using the special vantage point L1, four payloads directly view the Sun and the remaining three payloads carry out in-situ studies of particles and fields at the Lagrange point L1, thus providing important scientific studies of the propagatory effect of solar dynamics in the interplanetary medium

The suits of Aditya L1 payloads are expected to provide most crucial informations to understand the problem of coronal heating, coronal mass ejection, pre-flare and flare activities and their characteristics, dynamics of space weather, propagation of particle and fields etc.

Science Objectives:

The major science objectives of Aditya-L1 mission are:

  • Study of Solar upper atmospheric (chromosphere and corona) dynamics.
  • Study of chromospheric and coronal heating, physics of the partially ionized plasma, initiation of the coronal mass ejections, and flares
  • Observe the in-situ particle and plasma environment providing data for the study of particle dynamics from the Sun.
  • Physics of solar corona and its heating mechanism.
  • Diagnostics of the coronal and coronal loops plasma: Temperature, velocity and density.
  • Development, dynamics and origin of CMEs.
  • Identify the sequence of processes that occur at multiple layers (chromosphere, base and extended corona) which eventually leads to solar eruptive events.
  • Magnetic field topology and magnetic field measurements in the solar corona .
  • Drivers for space weather (origin, composition and dynamics of solar wind .

Aditya-L1 Payloads:


The instruments of Aditya-L1 are tuned to observe the solar atmosphere mainly the chromosphere and corona. In-situ instruments will observe the local environment at L1. There are total seven payloads on-board with four of them carrying out remote sensing of the Sun and three of them carrying in-situ observation.

Payloads along with their major capability of scientific investigation.

Type Sl. No. Payload Capability
Remote Sensing Payloads 1 Visible Emission Line Coronagraph(VELC) Corona/Imaging & Spectroscopy
2 Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT) Photosphere and Chromosphere Imaging- Narrow & Broadband
3 Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS) Soft X-ray spectrometer: Sun-as-a-star observation
4 High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer(HEL1OS) Hard X-ray spectrometer: Sun-as-a-star observation
In-situ Payloads
5 Aditya Solar wind Particle Experiment(ASPEX) Solar wind/Particle Analyzer Protons & Heavier Ions with directions
6 Plasma Analyser Package For Aditya (PAPA) Solar wind/Particle Analyzer Electrons & Heavier Ions with directions
7 Advanced Tri-axial High Resolution Digital Magnetometers In-situ magnetic field (Bx, By and Bz).



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